CHM 1020 Online Activity Name: _________________ Section:___

 

       Project #15: Observations of

Chemical Reactions

GOALS:

 

1. To observe and record chemical reactions going to completion through precipitation, gas forming, and neutralization via Online Videos
.

2. To predict the products and write balanced Chemical Reactions for both Single Replacement and Double Replacement Reactions.

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Vocabulary or Background:

 

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS: Laboratory Techniques which identify the presence or absence of various anions and cations.

 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: Laboratory techniques used to identify HOW MUCH

OF a substance is present in a mixture

 

CATION: Any metallic (or positive) ion, including the ammonium polyatomic ion

 

ANION: Any non-metallic (or negative) ion, including all negative polyatomic ions

 

AQUEOUS SOLUTION, (aq): A water solution of a compound, usually ionic

 

PRECIPITATE: Solid formation in an aqueous solution upon the addition of a precipitating agent

 

FILTRATE: Liquid portion of a solution which comes through the filter paper

 

SOLUTION: Homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent which passes through filter paper. Also cannot be separated by centrifuging. Solute and solvent are ionic or molecular in size. Always clear (never cloudy)

Chemical Change: A modification of a substance that alters its chemical composition

Chemical Reaction: The process of undergoing a chemical change.

 

Chemical Equation: A shorthand representation using formulas and symbols to describe a chemical reaction

 

Coefficient: A digit in front of a chemical formula that helps to balance a chemical reaction

Double Replacement Reaction: A type of Chemical Reaction in which two cations in different compounds exchange anions. Sometimes called: Ion Exchange and Metatarsus.

 

Single Replacement Reaction: A type of chemical reaction in which a more active element displaces a less active element from a solution or a compound.

 

Neutralization Reactions: A type of Ion Exchange or Double Replacement reaction in which an Acid reacts with a Base and produces a Salt and water molecules.

Active Metal A metal that is sufficiently active to react with water at room temperature, the active metals include Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, and Ba

Activity Series A relative order of metals arranged accordingly to their ability to undergo a reaction, sometime called the electromotive series:
[Li > K > Ba > Sr > Ca > Na > (H2O) Mg > Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Cd > Co > Ni >Sn > Pb > (H) > Cu > Ag > Hg > Au]

 

 

 

 

Disc Discussion:

Chemists write Chemical Reactions using formulas and symbols to describe a chemical change. These are the symbolic representation of a chemical sentence, Consider substance A and substance B undergoing a chemical change to produce substances C and D, we write:

The physical states of the chemicals are noted in the chemical equation by writing the abbreviations (s), (l), (g), or (aq) for solid, pure liquid, gas, or aqueous (water) solution.

 

Substances A and B are called Reactants or the subject of the sentence.

The horizontal arrow reads yields or produces and is the verb of the sentence.

Substances C and D are called Products or the predicate of the sentence.

 

In Chapter 9 of the Suchocki CHM 1020 book, Chapter 8 of the Hein CHM 1025C book, Chapter 7 of the Corwin 1025 book, Chapter 5 of the CHM 1032C and Jespersen of the CHM 2045C book, and chapter 3 in the TRO CHM 2045C Book; chemical reactions are introduced.

 

CHM 1025C students should read carefully about how to write and balance chemical reactions from your Hein textbook, sections 8.1 The Chemical Reaction and Section 8.2 Writing and Balancing chemical reactions. In the Corwin book: read section 7.1(Evidence for Chemical Reactions); Section 7.2 (Writing Chemical Equations); and Section 7.3 (Balancing Chemical Equations). In Jespersen read Section 3.5 (chemical reactions). In Tro read Section 3.11.

 

In CHM 1020 Suchocki text watch video 9.1 and read section 9.1 plus review the Chapter 9 Part I Study Pack.

 

Most of the reactions in this experiment are the type of ION EXCHANGE or Double Replacement. That is, two ionic compounds exchange their ions to form two or more compounds.

 

Ion exchange reactions (precipitation and neutralization) are discussed in section 8.3 in the Hein text. Likewise, in Corwins section 7.9 Solubility Rules; section 7.1 Double-Replacement Reactions; and section 7.11 Neutralization Reactions are discussed. McCurry text has Section 5.4 (Precipitation reactions and solubility guideline) and section 5.5 (Acids, Bases, and neutralization). Neutralization reactions are discussed in Chapter 10 of CHM 1020 Suchocki

 

Most textbooks introduce the main types of simple inorganic chemical reactions:

 

Types of Chemical Reactions Hein Corwin McMurry

Combination

A + B AB

8.3

7.5

Not introduced

Decomposition

AB A + B

8.3

7.6

Not introduced

Single Replacement

A + BC B + AC

8.3

7.8

Not introduced

Double Replacement

AB + CD AD + CB

8.3

7.10

5.3, 5.4

 

Single Replacement Reactions:

 

 

Given the following Activity Series:
Li > K > Ba > Sr > Ca > Na > (H2O) Mg > Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Cd > Co > Ni >Sn > Pb > (H) > Cu > Ag > Hg > Au

 

(H) aqueous acid

Chemical Reactions Experiment Data Table/Pages:

 

A. Combination Reactions (Instructor Demonstration)

1. Magnesium (s) + Oxygen (g)

Observation:

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/ReactionWithOxygen.mp4

 

Chemical Reaction D1:

 

2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)

 

 

2. Ammonia (g) + Hydrogen Chloride (g)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rf9j0ztzcs4

 

Chemical Reaction D2:

 

NH3 (g) + HCl (g) NH4Cl (s)

 

3. Sulfur (s) + Oxygen (g) (from Web)

Observation:

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/ReactionWithOxygen.mp4

 

Chemical Reaction D3:

 

S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g)

 

4. Sodium (s) + Chlorine (g) (from Web)

Observation D4:

http://www.fccj.us/SodiumChlorineCombination.mp4

 

Chemical Reaction:

 

2 Na (s) + Cl2 (g) 2 NaCl (s)

 

 

Page 2 Chemical Reactions Data Table

B. Decomposition Reactions:

1. Copper(II) sulfate penta Hydrate

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eX3JiKmenuU

 

Chemical Reaction #1:

 

CuSO4∙5H2O (s) CuSO4 (s) + 5 H2O (g)

 

2. Cobalt(II) chloride hexa Hydrate

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0a_zi0vhaE

 

 

Chemical Reaction #2:

 

CoCl2∙6H2O (s) CoCl2 (s) + 6 H2O (g)

 

3. Nickel(II) chloride hexa Hydrate

Observation:

View Online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel(II)_chloride
(see the hydrous crystal picture and the anhydrous crystal after heating)

 

 

Chemical Reaction #3:

 

NiSO4∙6H2O (s) NiSO4 (s) + 6 H2O (g)

 

4. Sodium hydrogen carbonate

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OoPokz_5Sns

 

 

Chemical Reaction #4:

 

2 NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Page 3 Chemical Reactions Data Table

C.  Single Replacement Reactions (Module 5i Part G):

1. Calcium (s) + water (l)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-rFsFwdkTU

 

 

Chemical Reaction #5:

 

Ca (s) + HOH (l)

 

2. Magnesium (s) + water (l)

Observation:

 

Chemical Reaction #6:


Mg (s) + H2O (aq)

 

2`. Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric acid (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SeKsLi_6WkY

 

 

Chemical Reaction #7:

 

Mg (s) + HCl (aq)

 

3. Copper (s) + Silver nitrate (aq)

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/CopperSilverSingleReplacement.mp4

Observation:

 

 

Chemical Reaction #8: (Copper becomes either +1 or +2 ion)

Cu (s) + AgNO3 (aq)

 

 

 

Page 4 Chemical Reactions data table

C.  Single Replacement Reactions (Module 5i Part G):

4. Sodium (s) + water (l)

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/SodiumPotassiumReactionWater.mp4

Observation:

 

 

 

Chemical Reaction #24:

 

Na (s) + HOH

 

5. Potassium (s) + water (l)

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/SodiumPotassiumReactionWater.mp4

Observation:

 

 

 

Chemical Reaction #25:

K (s) + HOH

 

6. Zinc (s) + Tin(II) Nitrate (aq)

View Online: http://www.fccj.us/ZincTinSingleReplacement.mp4

Observation:

 

 

Chemical Reaction #26:

 

Zn (s) + Sn(NO3)2 (aq)

 

 

 

 

 

Page 5 Chemical Reactions data table

D. Double Replacement Reactions (Precipitaion)

1. Aluminum Chloride (aq) + Sodium carbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://socratic.org/questions/what-happens-when-you-mix-calcium-chloride-with-sodium-carbonate

 

Chemical Reaction #9:

 

AlCl3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)

 

2. Copper (II) sulfate(aq) + Sodium carbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVRB0sV6Qq0

 

Chemical Reaction #10:

 

CuSO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)

 

3. Silver (I) nitrate(aq) + Sodium carbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lDLzmhF8E8

 

 

Chemical Reaction #11:

 

AgNO3 (aq) + Na2CO3(aq)

 

4. Aluminum nitrate(aq) + Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online:

 

Chemical Reaction #12:

 

Al(NO3)3(aq) + Na3PO4(aq)

 

 

 

Page 6 Chemical Reactions data table

5. Copper (II) nitrate(aq) + Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online:

 

Chemical Reaction #13:

 

Cu(NO3)2(aq) + Na3PO4(aq)

 

 

6. Silver nitrate(aq) + Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKbZhL8w84Q

 

Chemical Reaction #14:

 

AgNO3 (aq) + Na3PO4(aq)

 

7. Copper(II) sulfate (aq) Sodium bicarbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_xvut16Byxk

 

 

Chemical Reaction #15:

 

CuSO4 (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq)

 

8. Cobalt(II) chloride (aq) Sodium carbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEdAkBNNqSY

 

 

Chemical Reaction #16:

CoCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) CoCO3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)

 

 

 

 

 

Page 7 Chemical Reactions data table

9. Nickel(II) nitrate (aq) Sodium carbonate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqtXJS9tnRo

 

Chemical Reaction #17:

Ni(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CO3 (aq)

 

 

10.       Copper(II) chloride (aq) Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3thjr51qIN4

 

 

Chemical Reaction #18:

CuCl2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq)

 

 

11.       Cobalt(II) chloride (aq) Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7satZ53G3Y

 

 

Chemical Reaction #19:

 

CoSO4 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq)

 

12.       Nickel(II) chloride (aq) Sodium phosphate (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel_phosphate (note color of product)

 

 

Chemical Reaction #20:

NiSO4 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq)

 

 

Page 8 Chemical Reactions data table

 

E. Double Replacement Reactions-Neutralization

 

1. Nitric Acid (aq) Sodium Hydroxide (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnr-i_vA9nw

 

Chemical Reaction #21:

 

HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq)

 

 

2. Sulfuric Acid (aq) Sodium Hydroxide (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZFfH3kfVBQ

 

Chemical Reaction #21:

 

H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)

 

 

3. Phosphoric Acid (aq) Potassium Hydroxide (aq)

Observation:

View Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKHxJeZTiy0

 

Chemical Reaction #21:

 

H3PO4(aq) + KOH(aq)